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PAEGANA KOSI.                 ,                                    359
tracts of large extent,) is dotted with clumps of karil.   The soil is not suited to
the growth of the mango, and there are scarcely any considerable orchards either
of that or indeed of any other fruit tree ; the one at Shah-pur being the only
notable exception.    Of the total area of 97330I acres^ there are 71,490 of
arable land 5 the crops most- extensively grown being jodr, chana, and barley.
The wheat sold at the Kosi market comes chiefly from across the Jamuna.
The number of wells has been much increased in late years and is now put
at 1,37 9, of which 846 are of masonry construction.   The Jamuna, which forms
the eastern boundary of the pargana, is crossed by ferries at Shah-pur, Khalr&l,
and Majhoi.    The new Agra Canal passes through the villages of Hathana?
Kharot, Hasanpur ITagara, Kosi, Aziz-pur, Tumaula, and Dham Sinha, a length
of ten miles, and is bridged at Kharot, Kosi, Aziz-pur, and Tumaula.    The high
road to Delhi traverses the centre of the pargana, passing through the town of
Kosi and the villages of Kotban, Aziz-pur, and Dotana ; and from the town of
Kosi there is a first-class unmetalled road to Sher-garh? a distance of eleven
miles.    The HalJcabandi, or Primary, schools are twelve in number, being one
for every five villages, an unusually favourable average : the attendance, how-
ever, is scarcely so good as in some other parts of the district; as it is difficult
to convince a purely agricultural population that tending cattle is not always the
most profitable occupation in which boys can be employed.
In addition to the capital, there are only four places which merit special
notice, viz., Bathan, Dotana, Kamar, and Shah-pur.
Kosi is a flourishing municipality and busy market town, twenty-sis miles
from the city of Mathnra, most advantageously situated in the very centre of
the pargana to which it gives a name and on the high road to Delhi. As this
road was only constructed as a relief work in the famine of 1860, it avoids all
the most densely inhabited quarters, and the through traveller sees little from it
but mud walls and the hacks of houses. The Agra Canal runs nearly parallel to
it still further back, with one bridge on the road leading to Majhoi and Sher-garh,
and another at Aziz-pur, a mile out of the town on the road to Mathura.
The zamindars are Juts, Shaikhs, and Brahmans ; but the population,
•which amounts to 115231, consists chiefly of baniyas and Muhammadan Jcasdbs,
or butchers, who are attracted to the place by its large trade in cotton and
cattle. It is estimated that about 75,000 mans of cotton are collected in the
course of the year and sent on down to Calcutta.*
* The outturn of cotton ior the whole district was estimated in the year 1872-73 at 225,858
man*; the exportation therefore most be rery considerable-